Horvath’s study used 353 sites in the genome to predict chronological age, comparing the data with existing data on chronological age. Levine’s work uses thousands of sites to predict biological age, comparing the data with biomarker signatures of biological age. Some sites are more accurate than others, so the cumulative age is a weighted average of all sites. Few studies have evaluated the effect of the subtype on BC-specific mortality in young and elderly patients. A recent population-based study reported increased mortality among the elderly in all clinical subtypes of BC, but not among young women.
However, persistent calorie restriction can lead to loss of muscle mass and bone density, and the long-term effects on survival in non-obese people remain unknown. Aside from the obvious measures to avoid or quit smoking and avoid excessive alcohol consumption, several other interventions can reduce global biological and vascular aging. Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor that also activates AMPK-amp, is typically used as an immunosuppressant in organ transplant recipients and as an antiproliferative agent in the treatment of some types of cancer. Compared to other immunosuppressants, rapamycin reduces arterial stiffness, blood pressure and carotid artery IMT in kidney transplant recipients, suggesting its vasculoprotective properties (88-90). In addition, rapamycin and its analogues exhibit antiatherosclerotic properties in preclinical models and are used clinically to prevent stentresenosis and cardiac allograft vasculopathy.
Their biological age gives a better picture because it explains several lifestyle factors, including genetics, diet, exercise, and sleep habits. But perhaps the most important thing here, unlike genetic test results, is that these are measures that can be changed. Doctors can use this information and empower patients to make changes in lifestyle, diet, exercise and sleep habits, and hopefully take steps to reduce risk and improve their biological age. The increase in chronological Epigenetic Testing age also corresponds to an increased risk of geriatric syndromes, such as immobility, frailty and decreased physical resilience, as well as age-related diseases such as dementia, Alzheimer’s and osteoarthritis. “In certain parts of our genome, methylation changes very precisely with age,” Levine says. For example, if 60% of the cells in a sample show DNA methylation at a site in the genome, scientists can link that percentage to a specific chronological or biological age.
Evidence has also been obtained on the factors that promote the longevity of research on “Blue Zones”, geographical regions with a proportion higher than the average of centenarians. Dietary guidelines for healthy aging are derived from a comparison of healthy and unhealthy diets. Additional information about aging comes from research into conditions and diseases that show a premature onset of aging.
As they age, somatic cells accumulate mutations in their DNA and these mutations can provide a competitive advantage, particularly for highly proliferative cells, leading to the expansion of mutant cloning and mosaicism. So what age of the patient should be considered for the choice of adjuvant treatment in BC? In the context of cancer, it is important to define what age should be taken into account to stimulate treatment choice in older patients.