Air Pollution

DALYs for a disease or state of health are defined as the sum of the years of life lost due to premature death in the population and the years lost due to disability for people living with the state of health or its consequences. In Europe, air pollution is the main cause of the loss of disability-adjusted life years, followed by noise pollution. The possible relationships of noise and air pollution with health have been studied. The study found that noise-related DALYs were more important than those related to air pollution, as the effects of environmental noise on cardiovascular disease were independent of air pollution. A large study of urban pollution in 650 cities around the world has confirmed fears that air pollution affects human health in the short term and is directly linked to the deaths of the elderly and people who already suffer from diseases on a daily basis. The temporary reduction in human activities resulted in a reduction in emissions of some air pollutants.

The ozone layer blocks the sun’s harmful ultraviolet B radiation: it protects us in the same way as applying sunscreen to the skin to prevent sunburn. The hole in the ozone layer endangers all living things by increasing the amount of UVB that reaches the surface. Exposure to UVB rays increases the risk of skin cancer in humans, limits plant growth and development, slows down the development of fish and amphibians, and reduces phytoplankton numbers in marine ecosystems.

About 300,000 deaths from lung cancer worldwide in 2019 were attributed to exposure to particulate matter, PM2.5, in air pollution. Coal, metal mining and smelting, marine engines and diesel equipment for heavy equipment burn sulphurous fuels. Sulfur dioxide causes Fallout shelter eye irritation, worsens asthma, increases susceptibility to respiratory infections and affects the cardiovascular system. When SO2 combines with water, it forms sulfuric acid; This is the main component of acid rain, a well-known contributor to deforestation.

Consider reducing or rescheduling strenuous outdoor activities if you experience symptoms such as coughing and throat irritation. Children and the elderly should also avoid physical exertion outdoors and stay indoors. Reduce or reschedule strenuous outdoor activities, especially if you experience symptoms such as coughing and throat irritation.

The measurement is based on the observed relationship of nitrogen dioxide, tropospheric ozone and particulate matter (PM2.5) to mortality, based on an analysis of several Canadian cities. It is significant that these three contaminants can pose health risks even at low exposure levels, especially in people with pre-existing health conditions. Urban outdoor air pollution causes an estimated 1.3 million deaths per year worldwide.

In addition, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are considered air pollutants that are harmful to humans. Heavy metals such as lead, when absorbed into the human body, can lead to direct poisoning or chronic poisoning, depending on the exposure. Diseases that occur due to the above substances mainly include respiratory problems such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, bronchiolitis and also lung cancer, cardiovascular events, dysfunctions of the central nervous system and skin diseases. Last but not least, climate change due to environmental pollution affects the geographical spread of many infectious diseases, as do natural disasters. The only way to address this problem is through public awareness combined with a multidisciplinary approach by scientific experts; National and international organizations must address the rise of this threat and propose sustainable solutions. In Europe and Central Asia, the World Bank has carried out analytical work to assess the costs of air pollution in Poland, both nationally and by individual region.

Methane has no direct effect on human health in the sense that inhalation of typical environmental concentrations of methane is not harmful to human health. However, methane has a very important indirect impact on human health, as it is a precursor to tropospheric ozone, which causes asthma and other respiratory diseases and contributes to premature deaths due to air pollution. Ozone also damages plants and leads to crop losses worth USD 11-18 billion per year. In the United States, despite the passage of the Clean Air Act in 1970, in 2002 at least 146 million Americans lived in non-compliance areas, regions where the concentration of certain air pollutants exceeded federal standards.

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